Glossary of Terms
# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Term Definition
1st Operation Seam The first stage of the Double Seam formation. Initial formation preparing can & cover components for the 2nd Operation Seam process. Considered the most important.
2nd Operation Seam The second and final formation of the Double Seam. "A"
Acid Foods Food products with a pH level of 4.5 or below, see pH. In general, a greater degree of sourness results in more acid and a lower pH level.
Acidity The amount or strength of acid in foods or other substances. See 'pH' and 'Titratable Acidity'.
Aerobic Bacteria or any organism which is able to live and grow in the presence of oxygen.
Air Testing Using internal air pressure to test cans for leaks.
Alkali A substance that has basic properties, ie; a ph in excess of 7.0
Anaerobic A term applied to any living organism that cannot live in an oxygen atmosphere. Anaerobic Bacteria are not killed by oxygen, but will not grow or multiply. Many of the anaerobic organisms produce spores and are heat resistant, thus are usually involved when underprocessing spoilage occurs.
Angel Hair See 'Wooling'.
Angular Velocity The time rate of angular motion about a center point.
Anneal To soften metal by applying heat, followed by slow cooling; thus relieving internal stress.
Aseptic A process of handling material under steril conditions in strict absence of bacteria, mold or yeast.
Aseptic Processing Commercially processing beverages or food products into pre-sterilized containers, followed by aseptic hermetic sealing in an atmosphere free of micro-organisms.
Avoirdupois A system of weights based on the pound of 16 ounces and the ounce of 16 drams.
Bacilli Rod shaped bacteria.
Bacteria Microscopic organisms. These organisms grow in number very rapidly and are basically responsible for food spoilage. Many are heat resistant (see spores) and require a severe sterilization process in canned food. See Spores, Spoilage, Cooling Water Contamination.
Bacteriological Can Opener A specially designed end panel remover used during the Seam Stripping process.
Baffle Plate A thin plate used to deflect or retard the course of gasses, steam, air, etc.
Bail A wire handle attached to a can for carrying. Normally attached to the cans ears.
Banca Tin Tin ore from Melacca and Banca; it is the purest ore known and is valued accordingly.
Base Box Standard measure of tin plate area covered by 112 sheets, 14 X 20 inches summing up to 31,360 sq. in. or 217 sq. ft.
Base Load See 'Base Plate Pressure'.
Base Plate Part of closing machine that supports the can during seaming process.
Base Plate Pressure Spring pressure holding the can up onto the seaming chuck during the seaming process. Responsible for either long or short body hook in the can double seam.
Basis Weight The weight of one base box. The range of basis weight is directly proportional to the scale of gauges (thicknesses).
Baume A hydrometer scale used to measure the density of liquid.
Bayonet Lock In can making, it is properly known as the "interrupted thread lock".
Beaded Can A can which is reinforced by having ring indentations around the body. Tends to keep the can cylindrical and helps eliminate panelling.
Beader A machine that beads can bodies. Part of or follows the can Flanger.
Belled Bottom Bulged side wall at the bottom of an aluminum can that will cause packaging fill problems.
Bessemer Plate Sheet steel made by the Bessemer process.
Black Iron Sheet steel as it comes from the rolling mills, not coated with tin.
Black Plate Low carbon strip or sheet steel not protected from corrosion by a metal or bonderite coating.
Blanch A short cook in steam, boiling water, water at a lower temperature or exposed to microwave energy. Serves many functions as; 1. Drives out gas contained in vegetable tissue which aids in securing higher vacuum in cans. 2. Brings chlorophyll matter to surface. 3. Aids in destruction of enzymes. 4. Washes off gummy material, such as found on peas and shelled beans, and aids in removing surface bacteria. 5. Aids in preventing crackling of beans that would happen if suddenly subjected to high temperature, as in processing. 6. Shrinks vegetable tissue eliminating difficulty in obtaining proper fill. 7. Makes vegetables flexible, aiding in preventing breakage, example = Asparagus. 8. Opens Asparagus tips. Also helps remove sand from the tips.
Blancher Machine used to blanch vegetables.
Bleeder Valve or petcock on a retort allowing steam or air to escape. This helps maintain steam circulation omitting air pockets and low temperature areas.
Bloater A less common term for a 'Swell'.
Blow Out A hole or jagged crack at the leaking lap of the can body through both thicknesses of the welded side seam.
Blow Up Test A test applied to a closed container by injecting air pressure for a specified time, checking side seams or ends for weaknesses.
Body The cylindrical portion of the can.
Body Buckling A condition where the can body below the seam or at the weakest point of the can body has buckled in or twisted due to an incorrectly set Pin Gauge Height Seaming Roll adjustment.
Body Dent A dent 1/2" in length for 202-211 diameter cans or 3/4" in length in all others diameters.
Body End Fit Diameter Inside diameter of the can body at the flange area.
Body Flange Width Measured from the flange cut edge to the inside body wall surface.
Body Hook The singular folded portion of the can body linked and compressed within the Cover Hook. A major component of the Double Seam and essential in measurement in order to create an acceptable Overlap.
Body Hook Cut Edge Initially, the can body flange outside perimeter.
Body Hook Radius The radius located directly above the cans Body Hook width. (Included in the measured Body Hook.)
Body Plug Diameter Inside diameter of the can body away from the flange area or at the center of the body.
Body Wall Fractures Created from over tight 2nd Operation Seaming Roll setting.
Body Wall Impressions See 'Pressure Ridge'.
Body Wall Perforations Created from Cover Hook Wrinkles after a tight 1st Operation and then compressed so tightly against the can body the Wrinkles make perforations.
Body Wall Thickness The measured thickness of the can body wall.
Boiling Off Operation of removing lithography or lacquer from plate using a solution of sodium silicate.
Bonderita Blackplate coated with an inorganic chemical, (usually zinc phosphate) which promotes adhesion of enamels or lacquers and inhibits underfilm corrosion.
Boot Lower Part of a can elevator where the can is introduced to the elevator belt. Section of the runway at switchback.
Bottom Seam Also known as the Factory end or Makers end seam. The double seamed end put on by the can manufacturer.
Botuiin A toxin that is formed by a spore-forming bacterium and the direct cause of botulism.
Botulism Acute food poisoning caused by botuiin in food.
Boxer Machinery that puts cans in boxes.
Breast A can end having a raised center portion terminating in an opening designed to be capped, spouted etc.
Breather Cans with defects that allows air in or out.
Brine Aqueous solution of salt, (maximum saturation = 26%) sometimes containing sugar acids or other materials which is filled into cans with food material. The basic purpose of Brine is to act as a medium and aid in heat transfer during the cook.
Briner Equipment for filling Brine or Syrup.
Brix A measure of the density of a solution. Degree Brix = percent sucrose at 20° C.
Brix Hydrometer A hydrometer used for testing the strength of density of a sugar solution.
Buckle Excessive internal pressure above external pressure will distort the can end. Buckling is a result of improper pressure cooling where the pressure in the retort drops leaving high internal pressure creating end buckles. Buckles distort the double seam allowing leakage leading to spoilage. If only a few cans in the retort have buckles, remaining cans have been subjected to similar internal pressures enough to distort the double seam allowing leakage. Improper pressure cooling will result in excessive spoilage.
Burn Through A hole or holes through the welded overlapped side seam or through one thickness next to the side seam.
Burr Cracks Cracks starting from the end of the can between the heat line and the radius notch at lead or trail on a welded side seam.
Butt Leak See 'Channel Leak'.
C.T.B. Abbreviation for chemically treated black plate. That is, bonderized black plate or bonderite.
C02 Carbon dioxide
Cable Cut Cut on double seam from abrasive cable conveyor.
Can Metal or composite container for holding shelf stable foods or other materials.
Canner's End The end or cover seamed on the can after filling.
Carbonation Impregnation of carbon dioxide.
Caser Same as 'Boxer'
C-Enamel Interior coating designed to prevent dis-coloration in foods containing sulphur. This enamel contains zinc compounds which unite with liberated sulphur compounds to form white zinc sulphide thus eliminating dis-coloration.
Center of Can Temperature Abbreviated CCT. Temperature at the center of the can after processing. Example = Tomatoes, recommended minimum CCT @ 170° F. if air cooled and 190° F. if water cooled.
Change Parts A set of machine parts designed to run a container of a specified size.
Channel Leak A leak from a skip or channel in the side seam or lap of the can.
Charcoal Plate Black Plate with a heavier coating of tin than coke plate. 1A Plate - 2.25 lbs. tin plate base box. 2A Plate - 3.25 lbs. tin plate base box. Originally plate was reduced with charcoal and was thus the finest grade of tin plate. Charcoal plate is no longer produced because of time conservation.
Chlorination Treatment of cooling water with chlorine containing compounds to reduce the number of bacteria.
Chuck Part of closing machine which fits into can end during seaming cycle.
Chuck Flange The portion of the Chuck that fits into the counetrsink of the end.
Chuck Lip See Chuck Flange.
Chuck Wall Angle The angle measured from the Chuck Wall Radius up to the top of the seam.
Chuck Wall Impression See Pressure Ridge.
Chuck Wall Radius The radius measured from the Chuck Wall to the end panel.
Clinch A very loose 1 st Operation seam designed to hold the can end in place yet allow gas to escape during the seaming cycle.
Clipped Flange Any missing portion of flange which extends 1/32" into flange.
Closing Machine See 'Seamer'.
Closing Temperature Unless otherwise specified, the minimum product temperature just before the top end is seamed on.
Coater Machine that applies enamel or lacquers to sheet metal used to make cans.
Coating Pellet An interior lacquer, enamel or other coating pellet 1/16" in diameter or larger.
Coax Intermediate step in performing an operation too severe to accomplish in one step. To slightly change to allow entering of one part into another.
Cocked Base Plate A Base or Lifter plate not parallel to the Seaming Chuck.
Cocked Body A can body which is not dimensionally a true cylinder. This will result in uneven body hooks from one end of the can to the other. A long body hook on one end will be short at the other end.
Code Numbered or lettered code markings on the can end, (date, product batch etc;) stamped by the seamer or sprayed on the can bottom before entering the seamer. The canner is responsible for code marks.
Coke Plate Hot dip tin plate having 1.5 lbs. tin/base box. This is pre 1940's quantity of tin. The original designation came from use of coke to reduce the base metal as contrasted to Charcoal plate.
Cold Break Extracting juice from tomatoes which have not been heated.
Cold Reduced Plate produced by the cold rolling of steel.
Commercial Sterility Canned food containing no living bacteria able to grow under the conditions of can storage. There may be living bacteria but will not grow due to conditions unfavorable for their growth. Thermophilic bacteria may be present in canned food but will not grow because of the storage temperatures below their growth temperature.
Compartment Can Two or series of cans where the bottom end of one acts as the closure for the container below.
Complete Sterility Complete absence of bacteria.
Composite Can A can constructed of fiber material with ends of metal.
Compound A sealing material consisting of a water or solvent emulsion or solution of rubber, either latex or synthetic rubber, placed in the cover curl area. During seaming operation, the compound fills spaces in the double seam, sealing and creating a hermetic seal.
Compound Narrowing Cover compound that narrows to 1/16" wide X 3/16" in length.
Compound Skip A discontinuation of compound film resulting in less than 50% coverage of a specified area.
Compound Smear An obvious swear of compound on the cover panel.
Compound Squeeze See 'Extended Compound'.
Compound Wrinkle Wrinkles in the Cover Hook created from mislocated sealing compound.
Conduction Heating Very viscous products do not form currects during processing, thus, the heat must pass from the outside to the center of the can by conduction.
Cone Tops A cone shaped top designed to be sealed by a Crown cap.
Contour Synonym for profile. Cross section of can end. The shape and position of panels in the can. The shape of double seam rolls.
Convection Heating During processing, fluid products heat rapidly because convection currents are set up, mixing the contents. This rapid heating constitutes convection heating, such as brine packed peas.
Converted Unit Depth A vertical measurement similar to a countersink depth measurement only taken on the end before it is seamed on the can body.
Conveyor A moving belt, chain, or links used to convey cans or materials from one point to another.
Convolute Can A laminated fiber container wound perpendicular to the central axis.
Cook Synonym of Process. Length of time at a given pressure and temperature to sterilize a canned food product.
Cooker Equipment for cooking food, as sweet potatoes, and also called a sterilizer.
Cooker Continuous Equipment for continuous commercial sterilization of canned foods.
Cooling Canal A tank used to cool retort baskets of canned goods after the retort process.
Cooling Tank See 'Cooling Canal'.
Cooling Water Water used to cool cans after coming out of retorts.
Cooling Water Contamination Cooling Water with excessive amounts of bacteria that can lead to spoilage.
Countersink Depth A measurement taken from the top edge of the Double Seam down to the inside radius tangent of the cover panel and countersink wall. Usually measured using a Countersink Dial Gauge.
Cover Can end placed on the can by the canner. Also known as top, packer's end, canner's end, or lid.
Cover Hook The inner folded portion of the cover or end linked with the body hook. A major component of the Double Seam and essential in measurement in order to insure an acceptable 'Overlap'. Cover Hook Wrinkle, See 'Wrinkle'
Cracked Flange Any visible crack or split on the body flange.
Crane Mechanical overhead lifting device, example; retort baskets.
Creased Flange A sharp crease in the can flange projecting 3/64" upward.
Creasing A continuous scratch, scoring or indentation in the can body below the finished seam. Lithograph may be scored. May leave small flat spots or dents in the neck portion of a beverage can body. Most common on beverage containers with necked in cans with reduced cover diameters.
Crimp To fasten or reduce the perimeter of an end on a can body at several points to hold the end in place. Crimping is a process performed on filled cans before entering a vacuum closing seamer.
Cross Over The portion of the double seam at the juncture with the lap or side seam of the can body.
Cross Section referring to double seams, a cut through the double seam.
Curl The outer edge or diameter of the cover curved downward that forms the cover hook of a double seam.
Curl Cut Edge The outside edge of the end before the curling process.
Curl Height Vertical measurement on an end taken from seam stock area down to the cut edge.
Curl Opening A horizontal measurement taken from the cover curl cutedge to the countersink wall. Usually measured using a plug or pin gage. Also called 'Pin Opening'.
Curler The machine that forms the cover curl.
Cut Code An end that has been cut through from a code marking device adjusted incorrectly.
Cut Edge Cover Curl edge at end of seam stock or Seaming Panel.
Cut Seam Or Fracture, A condition where the outer layer of the finished seam is fractured. This was a defect found more when sanitary cans were soldered at the lap or fold. Usually, poorly made material forced over the lap would stretch to a point of fracture.
Cutover See 'Sharp Seam'.
Cylinder Can A container whose diameter is larger than the containers height.
Damaged Chuck Easily found during a visual seam inspection leaving dimples or depressions on the countersink or chuck wall of the end.
Damaged Curl Any excessive damage on the end curl that will cause seaming difficulties. Dead Head, Sometimes called a Skidder, a part of the seam is unfinished due to a poor fit on the Seaming Chuck.
Deaeration Removal of air from food products.
Debossed Code Marker dies switched to impress code markings downward.
Deflection Required depression of the Lower Lifter in order to apply preset spring pressure during the seam cycle. Calculated in setting 'Pin Gauge Height'.
Delamination The separation of laminated material.
Dented Flange A flange dent extending 3/64" below the normal level of the flange.
Detinning Removal of tin coating by action of the contents.
Dicer Machinery for cutting food product into cubes.
Die A hard metal form for stamping or cutting out parts.
Die Cut A break in the metal due to improper adjustment or contour of dies.
Die Mark Identifying mark incorporated in a die and transferred into the material.
Die Scrap Marks A visible dent in the end created from the die.
Dimensions Can, See table at end of Glossary.
Discoloration Staining or blackening of metal can due to action of product inside.
Distorted End An end which is distorted during processing and will not return to its original shape.
Domed End component with curved profile.
Doming Aluminum covers crowning after finished seamed due to internal presusre.
Dope Any substance used as a lining compound to improve the seal of two components.
Double Action Drawing The act of performing two drawing operations on a piece with one stroke of a press.
Double Seam Cover to can body attachment by means of interlocking all five layers (two of the can body and three of the cover) by folding and firmly pressing them all together. Produced in two stages starting with a 1 st Operation and finishing with the 2nd Operation.
Double Seamed End Part of a can that has been attached by means of the double seaming process.
Drained Weight The total weight of all solids after liquids have been drained out through a given size screen.
Draw An operation performed on sheet metal using a die so to change its shape by flowing or stretching.
Draw Compound A compound used to assist in the Drawing operation to minimize abrasion.
Droop A small section at the bottom edge of the Cover Hook radius that sweeps lower than the straight uniform radius around the seam.
Drop Solder Small cut pieces of wire solder which are dropped on the work.
Dross The scum or extranious material which collects on top of molten solder, usually from oxidation, mechanical separation, impurities or contamination.
Dryer Helical, Dryer for driving solvent or moisture from lining compound in ends. A helical screw carries the ends through.
Ductility The degree of formability of metal.
Dud A container with no vacuum.
Dud Detector A mechanism designed to identify low vacuum containers and reject them.
Ear The socket affixed to the side of a paint container to attach the wire handle.
Electrolytic Tinplate Pickled black plate on which tin is deposited by electrolytic methods. This process is then subjected to a heat treatment which fuses the tin to a smooth uniform surface coating.
Elevator Equipment used to raise or lower cans, food or other equipment.
Embossed Can ends that have a code mark embossed or stamped on them.
Embossing Panel The center diameter of a sanitary end dimensioned large enough for code marking.
Enamel A protective coating applied to plate used to make cans.
End Circular metal components on each end of the can body.
End Cutter Or Nippers. Pliers designed with the cutting edge perpendicular to the handles. Used to remove material from the double seam in order to inspect Cover & Body Hooks.
End Hook Radius The End Hook Radius is that which is next to the can body wall.
Engraving Zinc plate with a design etched or cut in its surface to be lithographed on a container.
Enzymes Chemical substances in food which bring about changes in food. These changes create odors or flavors along with others. Enzymes are relatively easy to destroy by heat through the blanching process.
Excess Shoulder Compound An excessive amount of compound on the cover shoulder (bottom panel or countersink wall) that will cause covers to stick together.
Exhaust Removal of air from a can prior to closing. Hot filling expands air in the container prior to seaming. The object is to reduce the oxygen level to prevent hydrogen swells.
Exhaust Box A steam or hot water chamber which filled cans pass through to raise or maintain the product temperature, facilitate air removal, and increase vacuum level.
Extended Compound Lining compound visible around the perimeter of the can below the final seam width or length. Most commonly due to over tight seams or excessive compound in covers.
Exterior Lacquer Protective coating on the outside surface of can.
Extrude To force, press, or punch out through a die.
F value Defined as the number of minutes required to destroy a stated number of microorganisms at a defined temperature, usually 250° F.
Factory End Bottom or can company end.
Factory Finished Can Height Vertical overall measurement taken from the can flange to the can bottom.
Facutative Bacteria Bacteria which can exist and reproduce under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
False Seam A condition where a portion of the seam is unhooked and compressed together by the 2nd Operation Seam cycle.
Feather Beginning of a Sharp Seam. The metal is forced over the Seaming Chuck forming a sharp edge felt with the fingernail.
Ferrostan A type of electrolytic plate.
Fill The weight or volume of material put in the can. The amount of space occupied by the material.
Fill Weight The amount of product put into a container prior to processing. It does not include the brine or liquid or the weight of the container.
Filler Machinery for filling cans.
Filling Temperature The product temperature at the time of filling.
First Operation See '1st Operation'.
Flange The flaired out ends of a can body necessary for double seaming.
Flange Radius The radius measured from the can body wall to the cut edge of the body flange.
Flange Width See 'Body Flange Width'.
Flanged Can Height See Factory Finished Can Height.
Flanger Machine for flanging can bodies.
Flash Exhauster Equipment applied to a double seamer to displace air in the headspace of the cans with steam prior to closing. Commonly known as Gassing or Steam Vacuum attachments.
Flat Sour Spoilage in which acid is produced but sufficient gas to cause the ends to bulge. A Flat Sour normally has lower vacuum so the sour cans can be sorted by a flip test for vacuum, or running through exhaust box which will cause swelling of low vacuum (sour) cans.
Flex Dome Depth A measurement taken, on an aluminum pull tab end, from the pull tab rivot to the top parallel line of the end.
Flip Test Measure of the vacuum in the can by applying a vacuum to the can end. When the proper vacuum is reached, sufficient to overcome the vacuum in the can plus the end stiffness, the end will flip out. The flip vacuum is a measure of the internal vacuum.
Flipper A can having both ends flat, but with insufficient vacuum to hold the ends in place. Thus, a sharp blow will cause the end to come out, but both ends may then be pressed flat.
Flume Trough or pipe used to convey food suspended in water.
Fluting Tendency of some stock to form a series of sharp bends and flat sides on a can body during forming. Instead of being cylindrical, the can body is a polyhedron of many shapes.
Flux A substance applied to surfaces to be joined by soldering, welding, or brazing to clean and free them from oxide and promote their union.
Free Space The difference between the measured seam thickness and the sum of the five plate thicknesses making up the double seam.
Front End of Machine The feed side of a machine.
Full Tucked Seam Related to oil filter canisters. The outside diameter of the double seam is equal to the outside diameter of the body. See Tucked Seam and Hyper-Tucked Seam.
Gassing The act of removing air from a container and replacing it with a gas, such as carbon dioxide or nytrogen.
Goose Neck Conveyor An S shaped conveyor for elevating food.
Groove A recess or predetermined profile, such as oil grooves, seaming roll grooves, curler grooves etc.
Gross Under-sterilization Very badly under-processed, a missed cook.
Gullwings See 'Body Buckle'.
Hairpins Seen through a cross section cut of a double seam, resulting from a tight final seam. The body hook radius is forced over the cover hook cut edge forming a Hairpin shape. Also known as R-ing or R's.
Halophillic Descriptive of microorganisms that will grow only if a very high salt concentration is present; salt loving.
Hammer Part of can body maker whose function is to hammer the side seam of the formed can against the spline, thus giving the proper shape and tightness to the side seam.
Hard Swell Spoilage in which the can ends are swelled too hard to be readily dented with the fingers.
Headspace The free space above the product in a can. Regulation of headspace is very important and great care must be exercised to avoid slack fills as well as overfilling. Maintaining the amount or level of headspace over a product will insure that air is displaced properly. Heat Penetration, In processing of canned foods, the rate in which heat penetrates to the center of the can. See 'Conduction' and 'Convection Heating'.
Heavy Lap A lap containing excessive solder. Also called a thick lap.
Heavy Solder Excessive solder in the side seam.
Hermetically Sealed e.g. Air tight.
Herringbone Score Weakening lines made in the body of a key opening can between and at an angle to the parallel scored lines. Designed to lead a tear back into the regular score line.
High Ends A misalignment of can body edges equal to 1/32" or more.
Home Use Cans Cans having extra long laps so they can be reflanged and used again.
Horn Cylindrical portion of the can body maker around which the body blanks are wrapped to form the can body.
Horse Part of the can body maker which supports the can body during soldering & cooling.
Hot Break (canning) A break in the soldered side seam or laps due to a jar to the can body before the solder has cooled and set.
Hot Dip Tinplate Pickled black plate which is coated by dipping in molten pig tin.
Hot Leak Result of a small leak in the can, usually the double seam. Product will ooze out during processing (common in tomatoes) but seals on cooling. Usually does not spoil.
Hydrogen Swell A swell resulting from hydrogen gas generated in the can by action of an acid product on the metal of the can. The product is not spoiled since there is no bacterial action involved. Pin holing of the cans may result shortly after the hydrogen swelling.
Hydrostatic Retort A still retort in which pressure is maintained by a water lag; it operates at a constant steam temperature while containers are continuously conveyed through it for the required cook.
Hyper-Tucked Seam Related to oil filter canisters. The double seam outside diameter is less than the outside diameter of the body formed over the tapping plate. "I"
Improper Overlap The welded side seam has an incomplete overlap to form proper welded seam.
Index As applied to a double seamer, that portion of the machine places incoming cans in time with seaming heads.
Inside Curl Diameter A measurement taken from the end cut edge to cutedge.
Interior Lacquer A coating applied to the interior of the can to protect the can from action by the contents or prevent discoloration. See 'C & R Enamels'. A lacquer is usualy clear, an enamel is pigmented and opaque.
Irradiation Sterilization utilizing high-energy electro-magnetic radiation.
Jam Cans wedged or piled up in moving machinery, such as, exhaust box, seamer, filler, etc.
Jumped Seam Double seam not compressed tightly enough at the lap. Caused from the seaming roll jumping over the lap. This may also be created from defects in the cover curl or body flange.
Juncture The part of the double seam at the can body lap or sometimes related to the area between the end curl and can body on a first operation seam.
Kettle Synonym for retort, also a large vessel, with steam jacket or coils, for heating liquid food material.
Key-Open Can Acan opened by tearing off the scored strip of metal around the body by means of a key. Acan opened with a key.
Knockdown Flange A portion of the double seam where the body hook and cover hook are not interlocked. False Seams and Soft Crabs are degrees of the same defect. To distinguish the degree of the defect the following terminology is suggested; False Seam, The cover hook & body hook are not interlocked for a distance of one inch. It may not be possible to detect until the seam is torn down. Knockdown Flange, As above, but more than an inch in length. Cover hook & body hook are in tact but not tucked. Soft Crab, A defect in which the can body is broken down and doesn't contact the double seam. Thus, there is a wide open hole in the can below the double seam where the body was not incorporated in the seam.
Knockout Dent See 'Knockout Mark'.
Knockout Mark A dent in the center of the cans cover as a resulting from the knockout rod. This mark can be a result from cutovers or knockout rod adjustment.
Knockout Rod A rod extending through the seaming spindle and seaming chuck responsible for controlling the can and cover during make-up and removing the seamed can from the seaming chuck after the seaming cycle.
Lacquer Coating or varnish applied to the inside of the can to protect the surface, prevent dis-coloration or off flavors in food products.
Lag During processing of certain viscous foods, an appreciable time elapses before the heat reaches the center of the can. The Lag is the amount of time required for the heat to penetrate to the center.
Lap Section at each end of side seam consisting of two layers (soldered side seams) for double seaming. The Lap also applied and has carried over to welded side seams where they are butt welded.
Lid Cover, packers end, top, or cap.
Lifter Spring loaded assembly that holds the can up to the Chuck.
Lip Defect in the double seam occurring at the Lap due to insufficient interlocking of the coverhook. Also known as a Droop.
Lithography The decorative or informative coating on the outside of the can.
Lock Seam A seam formed by the two edges of a can body shaped like hooks and compressed to form four layers of plate.
Longitudinal Cracks Cracks starting form the lead or trailing end of the can, extending parallel along welded side seam area adjacent to side seam not beyond heat line.
Loose Rivot Any ring tab that moves radially under normal seaming conditions.
Lower Chuck See 'Lifter'.
Lug Boxes Boxes used to carry food product between operations in a cannery.
Makers End Can manufacturers end.
Makers End Seam Bottom Seam of the can manufacturers can.
Malformed Bottom Any variation in aluminum bottom formation which will bulge below minimum product pressure.
Manufacturers Mark Marks applied by the can manufacturer identifying factory, year, line, press, type plate, etc;
Marker A device on closing machine which stamps code into the cover panel.
Mechanical Exhaust Synonym for vacuum closing.
M-Enamel Interior enamel used for meat products.
Merry-Go-Round Peeling table equipped with continuous conveyor carrying pails, pans, etc, containing fruit or peeling refuse.
Mini-seam Usually pertaining to an aluminum beverage container having a reduced cover diameter equalling 202 or 2-2/16 inches diameter.
Mislock Any degree of unhooking along the side seam of a can.
Mismatch Sometimes called a Mis-Assembly, this results when the can & cover are misaligned before entering the seaming cycle.
Missed Cook Gross under-sterilization resulting from a mistake with cans recieving no process.
Multi-Necked Cans Cans with reduced cover diameters that angle smaller but in stages rather than one angle. See Spin Neck Can.
Mush Metal A solid mixture of lead, tin & iron formed in machine soldering operations which must be removed from the solder baths.
Neck Plug Diameter The inside diameter of the necked in portion of a beverage can body.
Neck Seaming Clearance The portion of a necked-in can located below the body flange and above the neck angle.
Neck Wrinkles Small wrinkles in the neck of aluminum beverage containers. See 'Body Buckling'.
Necked -In Can Reduced cover diameter compared to the can body diameter. The can body angles inward at the top.
Non-Acid Foods Food material having pH above 4.5. Includes most vegetables except tomatoes.
Notch Position cut out of the can body corner to facilitate forming a smooth lap.
Omni Bowl A plastic bowl, (combination of polymers and/or layers) with an aluminum cover. Most widely used for microwave lunch products, such as spagetti, beef stew, soups, etc;
Oozer An imperfect seam allowing the escape of product through the seam.
Open Kettle Tank or retort open to air used for processing crates of cans in boiling water, or lower temperatures.
Open Lap A lap not properly soldered or welded so the two halves are not joined.
Open Top Can Another term for sanitary can.
Orange Peel During deep drawing operations, the surface of metal may become rough or grainy. The name originates from the the surface looking like an orange peel.
Outboard Seam Related to oil filter canisters. The double seam is formed outside the body wall diameter.
Outside Curl Diameter An overall outside diameter measurement of the end.
Oven Equipment for baking cans that have been lithographed, lacquered or enameled. The obeject is to speed dry the coating to harden the finish. Also, oven for drying solvent from compound in can ends.
Overlap Where Body Hook & Cover Hook overlap each other. Measured from the bottom edge of the Body Hook to the top edge of the Cover Hook. Easily measured using a Seam Scope or calculated as CH + BH + T - W = Overlap CH = Cover Hook, BH = Body Hook, T -Cover Thickness & W = Seam Width
Pack Date Date of manufacture, processing, or packaging.
Package Distinguished from base box to designate a given number of sheets of tinplate of given size and weight.
Packer's Can Synonym for 'Sanitary Can'.
Packer's End The end put on by the canner. Lid, cover, top or canner's end.
Pallatizing The forming of a pallet load.
Pallet A low, portable platform of wood, plastic, fiberboard, metal or combination thereof, for moving or handling materials as a unit.
Panel Height Measured from under the countersink radius up to the end's panel material.
Panelling Tendency of large size can bodies to collapse into polyhedrons instead of being cylindrical. The later influence of vacuum may cause formation of a number of flat surfaces running lengthwise to the can body. The flat surfaces are called Panels.
Paper Gasket A gasket of paper used for scaling double seam.
Pasteurizer Equipment used to heat juice prior to filling cans. Citrus juice is heated and sterilized to pasterize at 185° to 190°F.
Perforation Holes in the metal of the can created by a reaction between product and metal. Can happen from the inside from product or product spilled on the outside of the can.
pH A measure of the strength of an acid. Defined as the log of a reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in grams/liter of solution. The stronger the acid, the lower the pH level. A pH of 7 is neutral, (distilled water) below 7 is acid and above 7 is alkaline.
Picking Belt Synonym for inspection table or belt.
Picking Table Synonym for inspection table or belt.
Pickling An acid metal cleaning process to remove oxide film or scale.
Pigment Coloring matter included in paints, lacquers, enamels, and lacquers.
Pin Gauge Height The distance between the Seaming Chuck and Lower Chuck Plate surface calculated to account for the Can Height, Seaming Chuck Flange thickness, Can height lost in the Seaming Process, and Spring Deflection.
Pin Hole Synonym for perforation. Also, occasionally tinplate will be received with a Pin Hole in it.
Plastic Tightness Gauge A gauge designed to measure the acceptable tightness rating (75% min.) of cover hook wrinkles in the beverage industry.
Plate Thickness The thickness of material used in the can body or cover.
Pleat Cover Hook metal folded over extending from the cut edge down to the radius.
Preservation Having food under such conditions that it will not spoil. Any changes in the food by action of bacteria or enzymes is inhibited, methods as follows; Heat: Kill spoilage bacteria and destroy enzymes. Freezing: Bacterial action stopped by cold. Enzymes must be stopped by a mild heat process. Dehydration: Bacteria cannot grow in the absence of water, enzymes as in freezing. Chemicals: Kill or stop groth of bacteria. Brine, Syrup, etc.: Slows down or stops growth of bacteria.
Press Machine for stamping out ends or other parts. A lithographing press stamps designs on sheets of metal.
Pressure Cooling With cans larger than 208 diameter, it is usually necessary to pressure cool after processing to prevent buckling the can ends. Pressure cooling consists of maintaining pressure on the top and inducing water through the bottom. Cooling under pressure must continue until internal pressure in the can will no longer distort the ends.
Process The sterilization process given canned foods.
Process Kettle Synonym for retort.
Pro-coating A protective coating of lacquer or enamel, usually a drab olive green, which is applied by dipping or spraying after the cans have been processed and cooled.
Profile The design of the can end, its contour.
Pucker The cut edge of the Cover Hook is deformed downward but not folded or extended toward the Body Hook as a Wrinkle.
Pulper Equipment used to remove juice from fruit or vegetables or forming smooth bodies pulp. See Cyclone.
Punch & Roll Can A can, usually flat or sardine type, which has a scored cover or top. It is opened by punching a special key through one end of the cover or top and tearing or rolling the scored top off.
Putrefactive Pertains to type of bacteria. To spoilage in which putrid odor is produced.
Quad Neck Can See 'Multi-Necked-In Can'.
Quality Grader Equipment using the brine flotation principle, allowing younger tender vegetables to float and mature ones to sink, effecting a separation.
Radius Notch Cracks Crack originating at a point along the edge of the radius notch at lead or trail of a welded side seam.
Reel Synonym for Squirrel cage or Rod washer.
R-Enamel A protective lacquer (interior) used for acid products, fruits or colored vegetables. Used to prevent loss of color or discoloration of fruits, product and contact with tin.
Retort Large pressure sterilizer built for processing contained foods.
Retort Basket Metal baskets used to contain cans or other packages which are then placed in the retort for sterilization.
Retort Crates Same use as Baskets.
Reverse Wrinkle A wrinkle in the Cover ook that projects towards the can body wall or center of the can. The point of a Reverse Wrinkle can puncture the can. See Wrinkle'.
Ring (SOT) End An aluminum beverage container end with a ring pull stay on tab.
Ring Failure Aluminum ring tab substantially deformed or fractured prior to opening.
Ring Pull A cover, usually aluminum, with a ring attached for opening the container.
Rockwell A measure of the superficial hardness of the steel base of the tinplate. End stock must have the proper hardness to produce ends which perform well, hence, the stock is controlled to rather rigid Rockwell limits. End made with a low Rockwell may be easily distorted or buckled.
Rod Washer A squirrel cage washer constructed of closely spaced parallel rods.
Roll See 'Seaming Roll'.
Roll Bounce See 'Jumped Seam'.
Roll Top Can A type of can in which the entire top is removed using a key or other device.
Rusting Formation of rust on cans placed in storage. Main principles are, overcooling so the cans do not dry, spilling juice on exterior of can sweating, etc.
Sanitary Can Can with one end attached, other end put on after filling. Also known as packer's can or open top can.
Scalder A machine which treats fruits or vegetables to hot water or steam to loosen up the skin.
Score To partially cut through to a predetermined uniform depth to provide a means of tearing or opening.
Scratches Breaks in the lacquer, enamel or tin coating caused by sharp projections. Should be designated by position, depth, cause, body maker scratches, etc,.
Seam Junction of two portions of the can, such as the side seam, double seam etc.
Seam Bump A defect resulting from end compound gathering and pushed along during a tight 2nd Operation seam cycle. When the 2nd Operation Roll lifts away from the seam, the compound cools leaving an internal bump.
Seam Compound Rubber or other material applied to the end curl to aid in forming a hermetic seal during the double seam process.
Seam Dope See 'Dope' or 'Seam Compound'.
Seam Monitor Similar to a Projector. Used to view a cut section of the double seam.
Seam Projector A device designed to view & enlarge a cut away portion of a double seam.
Seam Scope A device designed to view the profile image of a cut portion of the double seam.
Seam Stock Material measured on an end from the countersink wall out to the cut edge. Also known as 'Available Seam Stock'.
Seam Stripper A device designed to remove only the material required from the top of a double seam, so to, remove the cover hook from the body hook.
Seam Stripping The most common method of tearing down a double seam to inspect Cover and Body Hooks.
Seam Thickness The maximum dimension measured across or perpendicular to the layers of the seam.
Seam Width The maximum dimension measured parallel to folds in the seam. Also known as Seam Length or Seam Height.
Seamer Machine used to double seam ends to a can body.
Seaming Chuck See 'Chuck'.
Seaming Panel Part of the end between the Cover Curl and Seaming Panel Radius.
Seaming Panel Radius The radius of an end between the chuck wall and Seaming Panel.
Seaming Station One position within a closing machine where the double seam process takes place.
Seaming Wall The area pressed against the Seaming Chuck flange.
Second Operation See '2nd Operation'.
Semi-Acid Foods A classification which is occasionally used and includes foods having a pH from 4.5 to 5.0.
Semi-Tucked Seam Related to oil filter canisters. The outside diameter of the double seam is formed approximately half the distance of the seam thickness over the tapping plate. See Tucked Seam, Hyper Tucked Seam and Full Tucked Seam.
Sharp Seam A sharp edge around the inside top perifery, or top edge of the Countersink wall, of the seam. Usually a condition created by too much clearance between the 1st Operation Seaming Roll and Seaming Chuck flange.
Shell A round seamless part drawn from flat sheet metal.
Side Seam Joint in can body resulting when the body is formed.
Silent Cutter Equipment for mixing and chopping meat and other products through the use of rotating knives.
Silker A machine used to remove the silk hair from cut kernels of corn.
Skidder Synonym for Dead Head.
Slicer Machine for slicing fruit or vegetables.
Slip Panel Tapered profile at the base of countersink to make the can & cover assembly easier.
Slipper On stationary Lower Lifter Seamers (no rotation, the Seaming Head rotates around the can) the can slips on the lower lifter plate during the seaming cycle.
Slitter Machine for cutting sheets of tin plate into blanks of proper size for fabrication.
Slivers See 'Wooling'
Snipper Machine for removing ends from string beans.
Soft Crab Seam defect resulting in a hole or open gap between the can body and end. See 'Knock Down Flange'.
Soft Swell Both ends of the can are swelled or puffed out, but may be dented by hand.
Solder Alloy of metals, applied in molten condition, which hardens on cooling, firmly joining metal parts to which it is applied.
Sour Food which has spoiled by becomingacid.
Spin Necked Cans Reduced diameter cover cans that have a single angle from the can body up to the Neck Seaming Height. Predominant in the beverage industry.
Spinner See 'Deadhead'
Spoilage Change in food resulting from action of bacteria or other microorganisms which renders food unfit for human consumption. Spoilage of canned or packaged food is roughly classified as follows; a.) Organisms entering container after processing Due to: - Container or seam defects. - Highly contaminated cooling water. - Distorted seams from buckling. - Distorted seams from rough handling. — Food entrapped between the container seam. Bacteria entering the container after processing usually produces Swells or ocassionally Flat Sours. The spoiled product is generally sour or slimy with no particular odor. b.) Under-processing—spoilage from bacteria not killed by processing. With non-acid foods, this type of spoilage generally results in an offensive, putrifactive odor and Hard Swells. Due to: Inadequate cook = low temperature or short time. High contamination of heat resistant organisms prior to sterilization. c.) Thermophilic spoilage -- due to extremely heat resistant organisms which survive the process. These organisms are able to grow only at temperatures above 110° F. This spoilage is generally due to improper cooling or storage at elevated temperatures. It may result from excessive contamination of the product through introduction of thermophilic organisms from contaminated starch or sugar. These types are: Flat Sours - the contents of the can are sour, but no swelling occurs. There is generally a loss of vacuum so sours may be separated by an end flip test or running through an exhaust box. Sulphide Stinker - swells which are characterized by hydrogen sulphide gas and the odor of rotten eggs. Thermophilic swells - swells which usually have a cheesy or medicinal odor.
Spores Heat resistant bodies produced by some types of bacteria. The high resistancy of these spores is the reason for the long process time at high temperatures for non-acid foods. If the heat treatment is insufficient, spores may survive and germinate and the bacteria will spoil the food. Spore resistance of different organisms may vary from a few minutes to 24 hours in boiling water. See Spoilage.
Springer Halfway between a Flipper & Soft Swell. One end always remains out. On pressing this end, it will flatten, but the other end will pop out. Flippers, Springers, and Swells are all degrees of loss of vacuum to positive pressure in the container.
Sprung Seam Any double seam that has been sprung loose or open between the can body and cover hook radius. May be a leaker but is unusual. Spur, See 'Vee'
Squirrel Cage A rotating, cylindrical washer named because of its resemblance to a wheel in a squirrel cage.
Stack Burn Condition resulting from placing cased cans in piles insufficiently cooled. May vary from over cooked to definitely a burnt flavor, color,& excess corrosion of interior.
Stacking Rate The manner in which ends stack, meaning, ends must stack consistently in order to separate correctly in cover feed systems.
Stepped Lap A lap which the two sections do not coincide - creating a step effect.
Sterilizer Equipment for killing bacteria. High temperature sterilizer or pressure cookers are usually called retorts in the canning business.
Stiffness The degree of resistance of sheet metal during bending or fabrication.
Stretcher Strains Lines which show in metal in the direction of draw after a drawing operation.
Sulphide Discoloration The blackening of the can interior from a liberation of sulfur compounds during sterilization of food which unite with the metal, forming tin sulphide.
Sulphide Stinker Spoilage caused by some thermophilic bacteria. The cans swell and hydrogen sulphide (odor characteristic of rotten eggs) is liberated.
Sweat To bond together by the application of heat to metal surfaces to which solder has been applied.
Sweating If very cold cans are placed in a warm, humid environment, moisture will condense on their surface. Sweating may very easily contribute to rusting of cans.
Swell Spoilage resulting in gas pressure which causes the ends to swell.
Syrup A sugar solution, sometimes acidified, or flavored used in packing fruits and sweet potatoes.
Syruper Filling machine used to fill liquids into cans.
Tab Better known as the Pull Tab on an aluminum end designed to easily open the container.
Tapping Plate Related to oil filter canisters. A stamped steel component of heavy gauge material welded to the under side of the oil filter cover threaded for assembly to an engine block or other device requiring filtration of lubricants or drive fluids.
Temper Ductility and hardness measurement of the steel base.
Tenderometer Maturity testing equipment for peas and similar vegetables. Maturity is judged by the force required to force peas through gaged openings.
Terne Plate Pickled black plate which is coated with a protective layer consisting of a mixture of lead and tin. Terne Plate is unsuitable for food processing because of the lead content.
Thermophilic Derived from the Greek, thermo = heat and philic = loving. Thus, heat loving bacteria. Thermophilic bacteria may grow over a temperature of 100° to 160° F. or higher. They are unable to grow at room temperature since it is too cold. Being extremely heat resistant they are able to stand processing. If cans are not properly cooled, the bacteria will be able to grow and cause spoilage of food known as Flat Sours and Swells.
Three Piece Can A can made with a can body and two separate ends.
Tight Side Seam Severe pinching at the side seam bevel angle, resulting in fracture of edge hook before or after breaking open seam for examining solder sweat.
Tightness Rating A rating of Double Seam tightness measured by its thickness. Must be consistent and compressed.
Tin Plate Pickled black plate which is coated with a layer of tin.
Tin Plate Weight A weight scale calculated as the Weight of a standard "base box" containing 112 sheets, 14 x 20 inches. As material thickness increases, weight scale increases. A variation in weight of individual sheets of tin plate can be expected to be as much as +10% of the ideal weight for single reduced and -5% to + 10% for double reduced (2CR) plate, according to information contained in the Steel Products Manual issued by The American Iron and Steel Institute. Note: Enamel coatings should be removed before measuring plate thickness.
Tipping The small hole in the center of the end that is soldered shut with a drop of solder, (evaporated milk cans) This operation is termed Tipping.
Titratable Acidity An acid measurement in a solution.
Tongue An extension of the scored section in a key-open can to which the key is first attached when opening the can.
Top Seam Synonym for 'Packers End'.
Total Neck Height A vertical measurement, on Necked-In cans, taken from the body flange down where the can body starts to angle in.
Tucked Seam Related to oil filter canisters. A double seam that reduces the outside diameter of the body forming the double seam over the tapping plate.
Tucking A term used in reference to the amount of overlap between the cover hook and body hook. Also, the operation of bending the curl of the lid under the bent down body flange to form cover hook and body hook respectively.
Turned Back Flange Any degree of turn back at the flange during the flanging process.
Twist A portion of a can chute used to change the cans direction.
Two Piece Can A can with a drawn body and one end. Can be plastic, steel or aluminum.
Type Dies that form the letters of the code on a can end.
Type Holder Holder for type in marker mechanism on closing machine.
Type L. Test The best grade tin plate. This is plate having low level of porosity able to withstand a 35 hour hydrogen evaluation test. Type L. Plate tested with a non-porous tin coating will resist attack by acid in acidic fruits.
Under Processing Using a process below the recommended in lethal valve. In referring to spoilage, that resulting from organisms surviving the process.
Undercover Gassing See 'Gassing'.
Uneven Cook A body or cover hook uneven in measurement.
Vacuum Atmospheric pressure exerts 14.7 lbs./sq. inch on all surfaces at sea level or zero elevation. To better illustrate vacuum see the example below. Asume a 'U' shaped tube open to air at one end and the other connected to a chamber which would allow evacuation. The tube contains mercury down at the bottom of the bend with the open end and chamber end up. both the chamber and open ends are open to air and both ends of the mercury column are level since the air pressure at both open ends of the tube is the same. At this point, remove or pump out some air from the chamber end of the tube. A vacuum is created in the chamber. Air pressure over the mercury column below the chamber is less than that over the open end of the tube. The mercury column rises under the chamber side of the tube when the vacuum in the chamber increases. This level of mercury is measured in inches. Absolute vacuum is 33 inches of mercury column, thus, total absence of air. Although this is a fundemental method of measuring vacuum, gauges are a more practical way to measure vacuum (in./hg).
Vee A sharp, sometimes pointed, portion at the bottom edge of the Cover Hook radius and usually shaped like a Vee.
Vent To remove air from a steam chamber, as a retort or valve through which air can be removed.
Vent Hole In soldered cans, the small hole in the top of a can which allows gas to escape and later closed by Tipping with a spot of solder.
Venting Blowing air through a retort using an exhaust valve.
Viner Equipment used for shelling peas, lima beans and so on.
Viscosity The rate in which a liquid or semi-liquid will flow.
Washer Equipment used to wash cans or food.
Waster Spot A surface defect on plate.
Waste-Waste Tin, Terne, or Electrolytic plate having defects to a greater degree than seconds but not to the degree of scrap.
Weak Lap The lap is soldered and both parts are together. However, strain on the lap, as twisting with the fingers will cause the solder bond to break.
Wilter Pre-cooking equipment.
Wooling Also known as 'Slivers', Fine shavings of aluminum metal gathering in the Seaming Chuck area of the Seaming Turret. May also be found in the cover feed area. These conditions are predominately in the beverage industry using aluminum cans and covers but are not totally uncommon with sanitary cans.
Worm Hole A small skip in the solder or weld in the side seam or lap appearing like a worm hole in wood.
Wrinkle A wrinkle in the Cover Hook that projects toward the Body Hook or away from the center of the can. The size of Wrinkles in the cover hook are measured by the percentage of wrinkles absent from the cover hook. Compare with 'Reverse Wrinkle' and See 'Tightness Rating'.